Data structure

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ROR Schema v2

This page documents ROR metadata schema v2. For documentation of ROR metadata schema v1, see https://ror.readme.io/v1/docs/data-structure. You can also read more about ROR Schema versions and a summary of what's new in ROR Schema 2.0.

The original ROR metadata schema inherited from GRID in 2019 is now known as version 1.0. After two rounds of community feedback in 2022/2023, metadata schema version 2.0 was developed and beta-tested, then launched into production in April 2024. Version 1.0 of the ROR schema will continue to be available in the data dump and API at least through April 2025, although we recommend that you use ROR v2. Read more about ROR's plans for metadata schema versioning.

If you'd like to request a change to the ROR metadata schema, please submit a schema change request on our roadmap.

Fields

Below are listed the top-level fields (or "elements") in the v2 ROR metadata schema along with their names, definitions, types, whether the field is required, and whether a value in the field is required.

Queries to the ROR API will return all fields regardless of whether they have a value. JSON will include null values and empty arrays and objects if there is no value available for the given organization. Values in fields that contain multiple values are sorted by Unicode value, which is alphabetical for characters in the Basic Latin set.

The full JSON schema used for generating and validating ROR records is available at https://github.com/ror-community/ror-schema.

Field nameDefinitionTypeRequiredValue requiredRemarks
idUnique ROR ID for the organizationStringTRUETRUE
adminContainer for administrative information about the recordObjectTRUETRUE
domainsThe domains registered to a particular institutionArrayTRUEFALSE
establishedYear the organization was established (CE)NumberTRUEFALSE
external_idsOther identifiers for the organizationArrayTRUEFALSEAllowed ID types: fundref, grid, isni, wikidata
linksThe organization's website and Wikipedia pageArrayTRUEFALSE
locationsThe location of the organizationArrayTRUETRUE
namesNames the organization goes byArrayTRUETRUEAllowed name types: acronym, alias, label, ror_display
relationshipsRelated organizations in RORArrayTRUEFALSEAllowed relationship types: related, parent, child, predecessor, successor
statusWhether the organization is activeStringTRUETRUEAllowed values: active, inactive, withdrawn
typesOrganization typeArrayTRUETRUEAllowed organization types: education, funder, healthcare, company, archive, nonprofit, government, facility, other

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All available fields and sub-fields

See also the complete alphabetical list of All ROR fields and sub-fields in v2 of the ROR metadata schema.

Definitions and policies

Policies and expanded definitions for top-level metadata elements. See also ROR Metadata Policies on GitHub.

* indicates a value is required

id*

The ROR ID for the organization, created and assigned by ROR. See ROR identifier pattern for more information on how the ROR ID is generated and structured.

admin*

A field with information about the ROR record, including dates when the record was created and last modified.

domains

The domains registered to a particular institution, not including the protocol, path portions, or query parameters that may exist in the URL for the organization's website. An organization's website is stored in the links field.

established

The year the organization was established, written as four digits (YYYY).

external_ids

Other identifiers for the organization (if available). ROR maps its IDs to four types of external identifiers: GRID, Wikidata, ISNI, and the Crossref Open Funder Registry (formerly “FundRef”).

links

The primary website and Wikipedia page for the organization. Only one website URL and one Wikipedia URL should be associated with the record.

In the case of websites with translated versions that use a language suffix like “/en”, the generic URL (without the language suffix) is used as long as the website resolves without it. Otherwise, the English version will be used.

locations*

The location(s) of the organization, including country name, two-letter ISO-3166 country code, latitude, longitude, and specified location (usually city) name. Location data comes from GeoNames.

A city or specified location is required to populate corresponding data from GeoNames, such as latitude, longitude, and country. State/province/region information is not explicitly included in the ROR record, since most countries do not have these administrative divisions, but this information can be retrieved from GeoNames.

According to our analysis, there no records with duplicate name, city, and country values in the ROR registry, so users should not need state/province/region information in order to choose the correct organization. Forms that use ROR can provide name, city, and country alone, e.g., "York University, Toronto, Canada" (https://ror.org/05fq50484), "York University, York, United States" (https://ror.org/022jz8688) and "York College, York, United Kingdom" (https://ror.org/04gaeyc40).

names*

Names for the organization, including four types of names: acronyms, aliases, labels, and the name ROR displays on its web search interface. Names may have multiple types.

Each name variant has a corresponding language tag with the two-letter ISO-639 language code where available. The language is not known for all name variants, so corresponding language codes may be null for some names. ROR name metadata fields support multiple languages and character sets.

  • acronyms

    One or more official acronyms or initialisms for the organization, typically consisting of the first letters of the words in the organization name (e.g., "UCLA" for “University of California, Los Angeles”).
  • aliases

    Used for alternate forms of the organization name that may be now or previously in common use but are not official according to the organization's current website or policy (e.g., "London School of Economics" for "London School of Economics and Political Science"). This field may include both current and historical name variants. ROR does not currently identify which aliases are current versus historical, but future iterations of the ROR schema may differentiate between the two.
  • labels

    Displays equivalent forms of the organization name in one or more languages.
  • ror_display

    The name of the organization displayed most prominently on records in ROR's web search.

    With the release of v2 of ROR's schema, ROR no longer assigns a "primary" name for any organization, since these decisions are highly subjective and are often inappropriately Anglocentric. Additionally, a single “primary” name in only one language is inappropriate for organizations located in countries with multiple official languages.

    At the same time, many ROR users require a default name for use in their applications. Therefore, each record will have exactly one name of type ror_display. The ror_display name will be used as the main heading on the organization record in the ROR web search and can be used by those who want to select exactly one name for use in their applications.

    The primary data source for the ror_display name and the formatting thereof is the organization's website. This may be different than the organization's legal name. Many of the name values in ror_display are in English due to legacy data, but ror_display names may also be in non-English languages, so long as said names are also written in Latin characters. Display limitations in many users' systems require this constraint, but as indicated in the labels section, all label forms, including those in non-Latin character scripts, are considered equivalent.

relationships

One or more organizations in ROR that the organization is related to.

Five types of relations are supported: related, parent, child, predecessor, and successor. An organization can have multiple relationships, but each relationship must be classified as Related, Parent, Child, Predecessor, or Successor.

  • Inverse relationships

    Parent, Child and Related types must have corresponding relationships in the related record, except in the case of records with status inactive or withdrawn. For example, if Organization A's record contains a relationship to Organization B with type Parent (and both records have status active), Organization B's record must contain a corresponding relationship to Organization A with type Child.

    Predecessor and Successor types may optionally contain corresponding relationships in the related records, but they are not required. For example, if Organization A becomes inactive and contains a relationship to Organization B with type Successor, Organization B may or may not contain a corresponding relationship to Organization A with type Predecessor.
  • Relationships to inactive records

    Records with status active cannot contain relationships to records with status inactive or withdrawn, except for relationships with type Predecessor.

    Records with status inactive or withdrawn may have relationships to records with status active for the sake of preserving the record data at the time the record status was changed to inactive or withdrawn. These are not considering current relationships and do not require corresponding relationships in related records.
  • Successor organizations

    Records with a status of inactive or withdrawn may have one or more successor organizations listed in their relationships. Successor relationships indicate that another organization continues the work of an organization that has become inactive or has been withdrawn from the registry. If an organization simply changes its name, it will not receive a Successor; the existing ROR record for the organization will simply be modified with the new name and the previous name in the names field.

    Depending on your use case, you may wish to update references to inactive ROR records in your system(s) to the corresponding Successor organization(s).

status*

Indication of whether the organization is active or not, based on a controlled list of status values. Records can be active, inactive, or withdrawn.

  • active

    An organization that is actively producing research outputs.
  • inactive

    An organization that has ceased operation or producing research outputs.
  • withdrawn

    A record that was created in error, such as a duplicate record or a record that is not in scope for the registry.

A record with a status of inactive or withdrawn may have one or more Successor organizations listed in its relationships. Successor relationships indicate that another organization continues the work of an organization that has become inactive or has been withdrawn. See relationships for more information.

types*

The type of organization based on a controlled list of categories. An organization always has a type. ROR metadata can support multiple types for a given organization. Allowed types are education, funder, healthcare, company, archive, nonprofit, government, facility, and other.

  • education

    A university or similar institution involved in providing education and educating/employing researchers.
  • funder

    An organization that awards research funds. All records that are mapped to a Funder ID will be assigned this type, usually in conjunction with an additional organization type.
  • healthcare

    A medical care facility such as hospital or medical clinic. Excludes medical schools, which should be categorized as “Education”.
  • company

    A private for-profit corporate entity involved in conducting or sponsoring research.
  • archive

    An organization involved in stewarding research and cultural heritage materials. Includes libraries, museums, and zoos.
  • nonprofit

    A non-profit and non-governmental organization involved in conducting or funding research.
  • government

    An organization that is part of or operated by a national or regional government and that conducts or supports research.
  • facility

    A specialized facility where research takes place, such as a laboratory or telescope or dedicated research area.
  • other

    A category for any organization that does not fit the categories above.

Example record

See the JSON structure in an example organization record.

{
   "admin" : {
      "created" : {
         "date" : "2018-11-14",
         "schema_version" : "1.0"
      },
      "last_modified" : {
         "date" : "2024-02-21",
         "schema_version" : "2.0"
      }
   },
   "domains" : [],
   "established" : 2010,
   "external_ids" : [
      {
         "all" : [
            "501100009517"
         ],
         "preferred" : "501100009517",
         "type" : "fundref"
      },
      {
         "all" : [
            "grid.440907.e"
         ],
         "preferred" : "grid.440907.e",
         "type" : "grid"
      },
      {
         "all" : [
            "0000 0004 1784 3645"
         ],
         "preferred" : null,
         "type" : "isni"
      },
      {
         "all" : [
            "Q1163431"
         ],
         "preferred" : null,
         "type" : "wikidata"
      }
   ],
   "id" : "https://ror.org/013cjyk83",
   "links" : [
      {
         "type" : "website",
         "value" : "https://psl.eu"
      },
      {
         "type" : "wikipedia",
         "value" : "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PSL_Research_University"
      }
   ],
   "locations" : [
      {
         "geonames_details" : {
            "country_code" : "FR",
            "country_name" : "France",
            "lat" : 48.85341,
            "lng" : 2.3488,
            "name" : "Paris"
         },
         "geonames_id" : 2988507
      }
   ],
   "names" : [
      {
         "lang" : null,
         "types" : [
            "acronym"
         ],
         "value" : "PSL"
      },
      {
         "lang" : null,
         "types" : [
            "alias"
         ],
         "value" : "PSL Research University"
      },
      {
         "lang" : null,
         "types" : [
            "alias"
         ],
         "value" : "Université PSL"
      },
      {
         "lang" : null,
         "types" : [
            "alias"
         ],
         "value" : "Université PSL (Paris Sciences & Lettres)"
      },
      {
         "lang" : null,
         "types" : [
            "ror_display",
            "label"
         ],
         "value" : "Université Paris Sciences et Lettres"
      },
      {
         "lang" : null,
         "types" : [
            "alias"
         ],
         "value" : "Université de recherche Paris Sciences et Lettres"
      }
   ],
   "relationships" : [
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/03zx86w41",
         "label" : "ESPCI Paris",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/04w11tv37",
         "label" : "Biologie cellulaire et Cancer",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/046b3cj80",
         "label" : "École Pratique des Hautes Études",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/032q0qd45",
         "label" : "La Fémis",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/00tf8ca96",
         "label" : "Musée Curie",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/015a85k79",
         "label" : "Infections Virales et Pathologie Comparée",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/03vtagt31",
         "label" : "Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/006gzge74",
         "label" : "Centre de recherche sur les civilisations de l'Asie orientale",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/008qs6838",
         "label" : "Mécanismes moléculaires dans les démences neurodégénératives",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/0095dt357",
         "label" : "Cancer et génome: Bioinformatique, biostatistiques et épidémiologie des systèmes complexes",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/03t4pc386",
         "label" : "Cancer, Hétérogénéité, Instabilité et Plasticité",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/01vrz7264",
         "label" : "Génétique et biologie du développement",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/01e8w0016",
         "label" : "Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives et Computationnelles",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/04ved1v49",
         "label" : "Relais d'information sur les sciences de la cognition",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/01ds1xe75",
         "label" : "Laboratoire d'Immunologie et d'Immunothérapie des Cancers",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/03k37h274",
         "label" : "Chimie et Biologie de la Cellule",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/04bgzse17",
         "label" : "Chimie Biologie Innovation",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/03j7mz841",
         "label" : "Centre d’Archives en Philosophie, Histoire et Édition des Sciences",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/02nfq1309",
         "label" : "Chimie et Modélisation pour la Biologie du Cancer",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/04v668f18",
         "label" : "Institut des Matériaux Poreux de Paris",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/04f6tkx67",
         "label" : "Neuropsychologie et Imagerie de la Mémoire Humaine",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/03y7m8990",
         "label" : "Physique pour la médecine Paris",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/01bbf9m56",
         "label" : "Fédération Francilienne de Mécanique - Matériaux, Structures, Procédés",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/05hb8m595",
         "label" : "PHOTOSYNTHESE",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/01w1erp60",
         "label" : "Couplage Multi-physiques et Multi-échelles en mécanique géo-environnemental",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/05edayg07",
         "label" : "Fédération de Physico-Chimie Analytique et Biologique",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/00mqc8k54",
         "label" : "Fédération de Chimie et Matériaux de Paris-Centre",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/0557mft23",
         "label" : "Formation, Innovation, Recherche, Services et Transfert en Temps-Fréquence",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/02rmk5x23",
         "label" : "Fédération de recherche PLAS@PAR",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/03qgfy688",
         "label" : "Fédération Ile de France de recherche sur l'environnement",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/01gapzp55",
         "label" : "Centre Roland Mousnier",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/05be9p317",
         "label" : "Micropesanteur Fondamentale et Appliquée",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/04fgntk96",
         "label" : "Tara Oceans Systems Ecology & Evolution",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/01nrtdp55",
         "label" : "GDR NBODY : Problème quantique à N corps en chimie et physique",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/03hkqjb05",
         "label" : "Fédération de Recherche Interactions Fondamentales",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/01r19bq53",
         "label" : "Replication des chromosomes eucaryotes et ses points de contrôle",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/0459fdx51",
         "label" : "Fédération de Recherche sur l'Energie Solaire",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/02zgjrf98",
         "label" : "Fondation Sciences mathématiques de Paris",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/04ef65y11",
         "label" : "Institut de Chimie Moléculaire de Paris : organique, inorganique et biologique",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/01sgwka45",
         "label" : "Microscopie Fonctionnelle du Vivant",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/04y8cs423",
         "label" : "Mines Paris - PSL",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/029nkcm90",
         "label" : "Observatoire de Paris",
         "type" : "child"
      },
      {
         "id" : "https://ror.org/007sc9r91",
         "label" : "Chimie Moléculaire, Macromoléculaire, Matériaux",
         "type" : "related"
      }
   ],
   "status" : "active",
   "types" : [
      "education"
   ]
}

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